Reference List

Here is the reference list used in Antony’s courses. This will be regularly updated. This list was last updated on 2016.09.13

Pelvic Floor References

Araujo Junior, E., Z. I. Jarmy-Di Bella, M. R. Diniz Zanetti, M. Poli Araujo, C. Dellabarba Petricelli, W. P. Martins, S. M. Alexandre and M. Uchiyama Nakamura (2014). “Assessment of pelvic floor of women runners by three-dimensional ultrasonography and surface electromyography. A pilot study.” Med Ultrason 16(1): 21-26.

Ashton-Miller, J. A. and J. O. DeLancey (2007). “Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 1101: 266-296.

Badalian, S. S. and P. F. Rosenbaum (2010). “Vitamin D and pelvic floor disorders in women: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.” Obstet Gynecol 115(4): 795-803.

Balik, G., E. S. Guven, Y. B. Tekin, S. Senturk, M. Kagitci, I. Ustuner, U. Mete Ural and F. K. Sahin (2016). “Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Urinary Incontinence During Pregnancy.” Low Urin Tract Symptoms 8(2): 120-124.

Barber, M. D. and C. Maher (2013). “Epidemiology and outcome assessment of pelvic organ prolapse.” Int Urogynecol J 24(11): 1783-1790.

Beales, D. J., P. B. O’Sullivan and N. K. Briffa (2010). “The effect of increased physical load during an active straight leg raise in pain free subjects.” J Electromyogr Kinesiol 20(4): 710-718.

Benjamin, D. R., A. T. van de Water and C. L. Peiris (2014). “Effects of exercise on diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle in the antenatal and postnatal periods: a systematic review.” Physiotherapy 100(1): 1-8.

Bo, K. (2004). “Urinary incontinence, pelvic floor dysfunction, exercise and sport.” Sports Med 34(7): 451-464.

Bo, K., G. Hilde, M. K. Tennfjord, J. B. Sperstad and M. E. Engh (2016). “Pelvic floor muscle function, pelvic floor dysfunction and diastasis recti abdominis: Prospective cohort study.” Neurourol Urodyn.

Bo, K., G. Hilde, M. K. Tennfjord, J. Staer-Jensen, F. Siafarikas and M. E. Engh (2014). “Pelvic floor muscle variables and levator hiatus dimensions: a 3/4D transperineal ultrasound cross-sectional study on 300 nulliparous pregnant women.” Int Urogynecol J 25(10): 1357-1361.

Bo, K., S. Larsen, S. Oseid, B. Kvarstein, R. Hagen and J. Jorgensen (1988). “Knowledge about and ability to correct pelvic floor muscle exercises in women with stress urinary incontinence.” Neurourology and Urodynamics 7(3): 261-262.

Bo, K., S. Morkved, H. Frawley and M. Sherburn (2009). “Evidence for benefit of transversus abdominis training alone or in combination with pelvic floor muscle training to treat female urinary incontinence: A systematic review.” Neurourol Urodyn 28(5): 368-373.

Bo, K. and J. Sundgot-Borgen (2010). “Are former female elite athletes more likely to experience urinary incontinence later in life than non-athletes?” Scand J Med Sci Sports 20(1): 100-104.

Bodnar, L. M., G. Tang, R. B. Ness, G. Harger and J. M. Roberts (2006). “Periconceptional multivitamin use reduces the risk of preeclampsia.” Am J Epidemiol 164(5): 470-477.

Braekken, I. H., M. Majida, M. E. Engh and K. Bo (2014). “Are pelvic floor muscle thickness and size of levator hiatus associated with pelvic floor muscle strength, endurance and vaginal resting pressure in women with pelvic organ prolapse stages I-III? A cross sectional 3D ultrasound study.” Neurourol Urodyn 33(1): 115-120.

Broso, R. and R. Subrizi (1996). “[Gynecologic problems in female athletes].” Minerva Ginecol 48(3): 99-106.

Bump, R. C., W. G. Hurt, J. A. Fantl and J. F. Wyman (1991). “Assessment of Kegel pelvic muscle exercise performance after brief verbal instruction.” Am J Obstet Gynecol 165(2): 322-327; discussion 327-329.

CFA. (2016). ” The Facts – Key Statistics.” Retrieved January 24, 2016, 2016, from

Champion, P. (2015). “Mind the gap: diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscles in pregnant and postnatal women.” Pract Midwife 18(5): 16-20.

Chiarello, C. M., J. A. McAuley and E. H. Hartigan (2016). “Immediate Effect of Active Abdominal Contraction on Inter-recti Distance.” J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 46(3): 177-183.

Chionh, J. J., B. P. Wei, J. A. Martin and H. I. Opdam (2006). “Determining normal values for intra-abdominal pressure.” ANZ J Surg 76(12): 1106-1109.

Chmielewska, D., M. Stania, G. Sobota, K. Kwasna, E. Blaszczak, J. Taradaj and G. Juras (2015). “Impact of different body positions on bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles in nulliparous continent women.” Biomed Res Int 2015: 905897.

Coldron, Y., M. J. Stokes, D. J. Newham and K. Cook (2008). “Postpartum characteristics of rectus abdominis on ultrasound imaging.” Man Ther 13(2): 112-121.

Cornella, J. L. (2004). “Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence.” Reviews in Urology 6(Suppl 5): S18-S25.

Crotty, K., C. I. Bartram, J. Pitkin, M. C. Cairns, P. C. Taylor, G. Dorey and D. Chatoor (2011). “Investigation of optimal cues to instruction for pelvic floor muscle contraction: a pilot study using 2D ultrasound imaging in pre-menopausal, nulliparous, continent women.” Neurourol Urodyn 30(8): 1620-1626.

Damen, L., H. M. Buyruk, F. Guler-Uysal, F. K. Lotgering, C. J. Snijders and H. J. Stam (2001). “Pelvic pain during pregnancy is associated with asymmetric laxity of the sacroiliac joints.” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80(11): 1019-1024.

de Groot, M., A. L. Pool-Goudzwaard, C. W. Spoor and C. J. Snijders (2008). “The active straight leg raising test (ASLR) in pregnant women: differences in muscle activity and force between patients and healthy subjects.” Man Ther 13(1): 68-74.

Dehghan, F., B. S. Haerian, S. Muniandy, A. Yusof, J. L. Dragoo and N. Salleh (2014). “The effect of relaxin on the musculoskeletal system.” Scand J Med Sci Sports 24(4): e220-229.

Dietz, H. P. (2009). “Pelvic Floor Assessment.” Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review 20(01): 49.

Dietz, H. P. (2010). “Pelvic floor muscle trauma.” Expert Review of Obstetrics & Gynecology 5(4): 479-492.

Dietz, H. P. (2014). Pelvic Floor Trauma in Childbrith. O+G Magazine16: 13-18.

Dietz, H. P., J. Pardey and H. Murray (2015). “Pelvic floor and anal sphincter trauma should be key performance indicators of maternity services.” Int Urogynecol J 26(1): 29-32.

Dietz, H. P., C. Shek, J. De Leon and A. B. Steensma (2008). “Ballooning of the levator hiatus.” Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31(6): 676-680.

Dietz, H. P. and J. M. Simpson (2008). “Levator trauma is associated with pelvic organ prolapse.” BJOG 115(8): 979-984.

Dmochowski, R. R. (2004). “Advances in the Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence.” Reviews in Urology 6(Suppl 5): S1-S1.

Eliasson, K., T. Larsson and E. Mattsson (2002). “Prevalence of stress incontinence in nulliparous elite trampolinists.” Scand J Med Sci Sports 12(2): 106-110.

Erdener, U. and R. Budgett (2016). “Exercise and pregnancy: focus on advice for the competitive and elite athlete.” Br J Sports Med 50(10): 567.

Gabriel, B., C. Rubod, M. Brieu, B. Dedet, L. de Landsheere, V. Delmas and M. Cosson (2011). “Vagina, abdominal skin, and aponeurosis: do they have similar biomechanical properties?” Int Urogynecol J 22(1): 23-27.

Gachon, B., D. Desseauve, L. Fradet, A. Decatoire, P. Lacouture, F. Pierre and X. Fritel (2016). “[Changes in pelvic organ mobility and ligamentous laxity during pregnancy and postpartum. Review of literature and prospects].” Prog Urol 26(7): 385-394.

Guess, M. K., S. N. Partin, S. Schrader, B. Lowe, J. LaCombe, S. Reutman, A. Wang, C. Toennis, A. Melman, M. Mikhail and K. A. Connell (2011). “Women’s bike seats: a pressing matter for competitive female cyclists.” J Sex Med 8(11): 3144-3153.

Guzman Rojas, R. A., K. L. Shek, S. M. Langer and H. P. Dietz (2013). “Prevalence of anal sphincter injury in primiparous women.” Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 42(4): 461-466.

Hagen, S., D. Stark, C. Glazener, S. Dickson, S. Barry, A. Elders, H. Frawley, M. P. Galea, J. Logan, A. McDonald, G. McPherson, K. H. Moore, J. Norrie, A. Walker, D. Wilson and P. T. Collaborators (2014). “Individualised pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POPPY): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.” Lancet 383(9919): 796-806.

Hallam, T. (2012). Physiotherapy & Chronic Pelvic Pain, Women’s Heath Training Associates.

Halski, T., L. Slupska, R. Dymarek, J. Bartnicki, U. Halska, A. Krol, M. Paprocka-Borowicz, J. Dembowski, R. Zdrojowy and K. Ptaszkowski (2014). “Evaluation of bioelectrical activity of pelvic floor muscles and synergistic muscles depending on orientation of pelvis in menopausal women with symptoms of stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study.” Biomed Res Int2014: 274938.

Hamad, N. M., J. M. Shaw, I. E. Nygaard, T. J. Coleman, Y. Hsu, M. Egger and R. W. Hitchcock (2013). “More complicated than it looks: the vagaries of calculating intra-abdominal pressure.” J Strength Cond Res 27(11): 3204-3215.

Han, D. and M. Ha (2015). “Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function.” J Phys Ther Sci 27(10): 3233-3235.

Hansen, A., D. V. Jensen, M. Wormslev, H. Minck, S. Johansen, E. C. Larsen, C. Wilken-Jensen, M. Davidsen and T. M. Hansen (1999). “Symptom-giving pelvic girdle relaxation in pregnancy. II: Symptoms and clinical signs.” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 78(2): 111-115.

Hartmann, D. and J. Sarton (2014). “Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.” Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 28(7): 977-990.

Hay, J. G. (1993). “Citius, altius, longius (faster, higher, longer): the biomechanics of jumping for distance.” J Biomech 26 Suppl 1: 7-21.

Hay-Smith, E. J., D. McClurg, H. Frawley and S. G. Dean (2016). “Exercise adherence: integrating theory, evidence and behaviour change techniques.” Physiotherapy 102(1): 7-9.

Heitz, N. A., P. A. Eisenman, C. L. Beck and J. A. Walker (1999). “Hormonal changes throughout the menstrual cycle and increased anterior cruciate ligament laxity in females.” J Athl Train 34(2): 144-149.

Herschorn, S. (2004). “Female pelvic floor anatomy: the pelvic floor, supporting structures, and pelvic organs.” Rev Urol 6 Suppl 5: S2-S10.

Hilde, G., J. Staer-Jensen, F. Siafarikas, K. Gjestland, M. Ellstrom Engh and K. Bo (2013). “How well can pelvic floor muscles with major defects contract? A cross-sectional comparative study 6 weeks after delivery using transperineal 3D/4D ultrasound and manometer.” BJOG 120(11): 1423-1429.

Hodges, P. W., J. E. Butler, D. K. McKenzie and S. C. Gandevia (1997). “Contraction of the human diaphragm during rapid postural adjustments.” J Physiol 505 ( Pt 2): 539-548.

Hodges, P. W. and S. C. Gandevia (2000). “Changes in intra-abdominal pressure during postural and respiratory activation of the human diaphragm.” J Appl Physiol (1985) 89(3): 967-976.

Hoffman, D. (2011). “Understanding multisymptom presentations in chronic pelvic pain: the inter-relationships between the viscera and myofascial pelvic floor dysfunction.” Curr Pain Headache Rep 15(5): 343-346.

Howard, D., J. M. Miller, J. O. Delancey and J. A. Ashton-Miller (2000). “Differential effects of cough, valsalva, and continence status on vesical neck movement.” Obstet Gynecol 95(4): 535-540.

Howard, F. M. (2003). “Chronic pelvic pain.” Obstet Gynecol 101(3): 594-611.

Hsu, Y., L. Chen, J. Tumbarello, J. A. Ashton-Miller and J. O. DeLancey (2010). “In vivo assessment of anterior compartment compliance and its relation to prolapse.” Int Urogynecol J 21(9): 1111-1115.

IUGA (2011). Pelvic Organ Prolapse. I. U. Association, IUGA Office.

Jung, H., S. Jung, S. Joo and C. Song (2016). “Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction.” J Phys Ther Sci 28(2): 467-472.

Junginger, B., K. Baessler, R. Sapsford and P. W. Hodges (2010). “Effect of abdominal and pelvic floor tasks on muscle activity, abdominal pressure and bladder neck.” Int Urogynecol J 21(1): 69-77.

Kaya, S., T. Akbayrak, C. Gursen and S. Beksac (2015). “Short-term effect of adding pelvic floor muscle training to bladder training for female urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial.” Int Urogynecol J 26(2): 285-293.

Khunda, A., K. L. Shek and H. P. Dietz (2012). “Can ballooning of the levator hiatus be determined clinically?” Am J Obstet Gynecol 206(3): 246 e241-244.

Kim, J., C. Betschart, R. Ramanah, J. A. Ashton-Miller and J. O. DeLancey (2015). “Anatomy of the pubovisceral muscle origin: Macroscopic and microscopic findings within the injury zone.” Neurourol Urodyn 34(8): 774-780.

Kruger, J. A., H. P. Dietz and B. A. Murphy (2007). “Pelvic floor function in elite nulliparous athletes.” Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 30(1): 81-85.

Kruger, J. A., B. A. Murphy and S. W. Heap (2005). “Alterations in levator ani morphology in elite nulliparous athletes: a pilot study.” Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 45(1): 42-47.

Lamin, E., L. M. Parrillo, D. K. Newman and A. L. Smith (2016). “Pelvic Floor Muscle Training: Underutilization in the USA.” Curr Urol Rep 17(2): 10.

Larsen, E. C., C. Wilken-Jensen, A. Hansen, D. V. Jensen, S. Johansen, H. Minck, M. Wormslev, M. Davidsen and T. M. Hansen (1999). “Symptom-giving pelvic girdle relaxation in pregnancy. I: Prevalence and risk factors.” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 78(2): 105-110.

Laterza, R. M., L. Schrutka, W. Umek, S. Albrich and H. Koelbl (2015). “Pelvic floor dysfunction after levator trauma 1-year postpartum: a prospective case-control study.” Int Urogynecol J 26(1): 41-47.

Lee, D. and P. W. Hodges (2016). “Behavior of the Linea Alba During a Curl-up Task in Diastasis Rectus Abdominis: An Observational Study.” J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 46(7): 580-589.

Lee, D. G. (2011). The Pelvic Girdle, Churchill Livingstone.

Lee, D. G. (2012). Diastasis Rectus Abdominis and the implications for Returning to Sport after Pregnancy. In Touch, Australian Physiotherapy Association. 139.

Lexell, J. (1995). “Human aging, muscle mass, and fiber type composition.” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 50 Spec No: 11-16.

Lexell, J., K. Henriksson-Larsen, B. Winblad and M. Sjostrom (1983). “Distribution of different fiber types in human skeletal muscles: effects of aging studied in whole muscle cross sections.” Muscle Nerve 6(8): 588-595.

Lukacz, E. S., C. Sampselle, M. Gray, S. Macdiarmid, M. Rosenberg, P. Ellsworth and M. H. Palmer (2011). “A healthy bladder: a consensus statement.” Int J Clin Pract 65(10): 1026-1036.

Majumdar, A., S. Saleh, M. Hill and S. R. Hill (2013). “The impact of strenuous physical activity on the development of pelvic organ prolapse.” J Obstet Gynaecol 33(2): 115-119.

Mamberti-Dias, A. The French experience of pelvic floor rehabilitation. MARSEILLE – FRANCE.

McGuire, E. J. (2004). “Pathophysiology of Stress Urinary Incontinence.” Reviews in Urology 6(Suppl 5): S11-S17.

McKenzie, S., T. Watson, J. Thompson and K. Briffa (2016). “Stress urinary incontinence is highly prevalent in recreationally active women attending gyms or exercise classes.” Int Urogynecol J27(8): 1175-1184.

Memon, H. U., J. L. Blomquist, H. P. Dietz, C. B. Pierce, M. M. Weinstein and V. L. Handa (2015). “Comparison of levator ani muscle avulsion injury after forceps-assisted and vacuum-assisted vaginal childbirth.” Obstet Gynecol 125(5): 1080-1087.

Mens, J. M., A. Vleeming, C. J. Snijders, B. W. Koes and H. J. Stam (2002). “Validity of the active straight leg raise test for measuring disease severity in patients with posterior pelvic pain after pregnancy.” Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 27(2): 196-200.

Mestre-Alfaro, A., M. D. Ferrer, A. Sureda, P. Tauler, E. Martinez, M. M. Bibiloni, V. Micol, J. A. Tur and A. Pons (2011). “Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.” Eur J Appl Physiol 111(9): 2281-2294.

Middlekauff, M. L., M. J. Egger, I. E. Nygaard and J. M. Shaw (2016). “The impact of acute and chronic strenuous exercise on pelvic floor muscle strength and support in nulliparous healthy women.” Am J Obstet Gynecol.

Miller, J. M., J. A. Ashton-Miller and J. O. DeLancey (1998). “A pelvic muscle precontraction can reduce cough-related urine loss in selected women with mild SUI.” J Am Geriatr Soc 46(7): 870-874.

Miller, J. M., J. A. Ashton-Miller and J. O. Delancey (1998). “Quantification of cough-related urine loss using the paper towel test.” Obstet Gynecol 91(5 Pt 1): 705-709.

Miller, J. M., C. Sampselle, J. Ashton-Miller, G. R. Hong and J. O. DeLancey (2008). “Clarification and confirmation of the Knack maneuver: the effect of volitional pelvic floor muscle contraction to preempt expected stress incontinence.” Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 19(6): 773-782.

Mogren, I. M. (2006). “BMI, pain and hyper-mobility are determinants of long-term outcome for women with low back pain and pelvic pain during pregnancy.” Eur Spine J 15(7): 1093-1102.

Morris, V. C., M. P. Murray, J. O. Delancey and J. A. Ashton-Miller (2012). “A comparison of the effect of age on levator ani and obturator internus muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes in nulliparous women.” Neurourol Urodyn 31(4): 481-486.

Mouritsen, L., M. Hulbaek, S. Brostrom and J. Bogstad (2007). “Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair.” Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 18(8): 943-948.

Neumann, P. and V. Gill (2002). “Pelvic floor and abdominal muscle interaction: EMG activity and intra-abdominal pressure.” Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 13(2): 125-132.

Nikolopoulos, K. I., V. Pergialiotis, D. Perrea and S. K. Doumouchtsis (2016). “Restoration of the pubourethral ligament with platelet rich plasma for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.” Med Hypotheses 90: 29-31.

Nygaard, I., M. D. Barber, K. L. Burgio, K. Kenton, S. Meikle, J. Schaffer, C. Spino, W. E. Whitehead, J. Wu, D. J. Brody and N. Pelvic Floor Disorders (2008). “Prevalence of symptomatic pelvic floor disorders in US women.” JAMA 300(11): 1311-1316.

Nygaard, I., J. O. DeLancey, L. Arnsdorf and E. Murphy (1990). “Exercise and incontinence.” Obstet Gynecol 75(5): 848-851.

Nygaard, I., T. Girts, N. H. Fultz, K. Kinchen, G. Pohl and B. Sternfeld (2005). “Is urinary incontinence a barrier to exercise in women?” Obstet Gynecol 106(2): 307-314.

Nygaard, I., V. Handa, L. Brubaker, D. Borello-France, J. Wei, E. Wells, A. M. Weber and N. Pelvic Floor Disorders (2007). “Physical activity in women planning sacrocolpopexy.” Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 18(1): 33-37.

Nygaard, I., J. Shaw and M. J. Egger (2012). “Exploring the association between lifetime physical activity and pelvic floor disorders: study and design challenges.” Contemp Clin Trials 33(4): 819-827.

Nygaard, I. E. and J. M. Shaw (2016). “Physical activity and the pelvic floor.” Am J Obstet Gynecol 214(2): 164-171.

Nygaard, I. E., F. L. Thompson, S. L. Svengalis and J. P. Albright (1994). “Urinary incontinence in elite nulliparous athletes.” Obstet Gynecol 84(2): 183-187.

O’Dell, K. K., A. N. Morse, S. L. Crawford and A. Howard (2007). “Vaginal pressure during lifting, floor exercises, jogging, and use of hydraulic exercise machines.” Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 18(12): 1481-1489.

Olsen, A. L., V. J. Smith, J. O. Bergstrom, J. C. Colling and A. L. Clark (1997). “Epidemiology of surgically managed pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence.” Obstet Gynecol 89(4): 501-506.

Pennick, V. E. and G. Young (2007). “Interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev(2): CD001139.

Pereira, N., C. Sciaraffia, S. Danilla, F. Parada, C. Asfora and C. Moral (2016). “Effects of Abdominoplasty on Intra-Abdominal Pressure and Pulmonary Function.” Aesthet Surg J 36(6): 697-702.

Porter, M. M., A. A. Vandervoort and J. Lexell (1995). “Aging of human muscle: structure, function and adaptability.” Scand J Med Sci Sports 5(3): 129-142.

Poswiata, A., T. Socha and J. Opara (2014). “Prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in elite female endurance athletes.” J Hum Kinet 44: 91-96.

Price, K., P. Schartz and A. H. Watson (2014). “The effect of standing and sitting postures on breathing in brass players.” Springerplus 3: 210.

Rafla, N. M. and J. R. Cook (1999). “The effect of maternal exercise on fetal heart rate.” J Obstet Gynaecol 19(4): 381-384.

Ree, M. L., I. Nygaard and K. Bo (2007). “Muscular fatigue in the pelvic floor muscles after strenuous physical activity.” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86(7): 870-876.

Reimers, C., J. Staer-Jensen, F. Siafarikas, J. Saltyte-Benth, K. Bo and M. Ellstrom Engh (2016). “Change in pelvic organ support during pregnancy and the first year postpartum: a longitudinal study.” BJOG 123(5): 821-829.

Resende, A. P., L. Stupp, B. T. Bernardes, E. Oliveira, R. A. Castro, M. J. Girao and M. G. Sartori (2012). “Can hypopressive exercises provide additional benefits to pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse?” Neurourol Urodyn 31(1): 121-125.

Robinson, D., P. Toozs-Hobson and L. Cardozo (2013). “The effect of hormones on the lower urinary tract.” Menopause Int 19(4): 155-162.

Sangsawang, B. and N. Sangsawang (2016). “Is a 6-week supervised pelvic floor muscle exercise program effective in preventing stress urinary incontinence in late pregnancy in primigravid women?: a randomized controlled trial.” Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 197: 103-110.

Sapsford, R. R., C. A. Richardson, C. F. Maher and P. W. Hodges (2008). “Pelvic floor muscle activity in different sitting postures in continent and incontinent women.” Arch Phys Med Rehabil89(9): 1741-1747.

Senat, M. V., L. Sentilhes, A. Battut, D. Benhamou, S. Bydlowski, A. Chantry, X. Deffieux, F. Diers, M. Doret, C. Ducroux-Schouwey, F. Fuchs, G. Gascoin, C. Lebot, L. Marcellin, G. Plu-Bureau, B. Raccah-Tebeka, E. Simon, G. Breart and L. Marpeau (2016). “Postpartum practice: guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF).” Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 202: 1-8.

Shaw, J. M., N. M. Hamad, T. J. Coleman, M. J. Egger, Y. Hsu, R. Hitchcock and I. E. Nygaard (2014). “Intra-abdominal pressures during activity in women using an intra-vaginal pressure transducer.” J Sports Sci 32(12): 1176-1185.

Simpson, S., M. Deeble, J. Thompson, A. Andrews and K. Briffa (2016). “Should women with incontinence and prolapse do abdominal curls?” Int Urogynecol J.

Sjodahl, J., A. Gutke, G. Ghaffari, T. Stromberg and B. Oberg (2016). “Response of the muscles in the pelvic floor and the lower lateral abdominal wall during the Active Straight Leg Raise in women with and without pelvic girdle pain: An experimental study.” Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 35: 49-55.

Smith, F. J., C. D. Holman, R. E. Moorin and N. Tsokos (2010). “Lifetime risk of undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.” Obstet Gynecol 116(5): 1096-1100.

Spahlinger, D. M., L. Newcomb, J. A. Ashton-Miller, J. O. DeLancey and L. Chen (2014). “Relationship between intra-abdominal pressure and vaginal wall movements during Valsalva in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse: technique development and early observations.” Int Urogynecol J 25(7): 873-881.

Sperstad, J. B., M. K. Tennfjord, G. Hilde, M. Ellstrom-Engh and K. Bo (2016). “Diastasis recti abdominis during pregnancy and 12 months after childbirth: prevalence, risk factors and report of lumbopelvic pain.” Br J Sports Med 50(17): 1092-1096.

Staelens, A. S., S. Van Cauwelaert, K. Tomsin, T. Mesens, M. L. Malbrain and W. Gyselaers (2014). “Intra-abdominal pressure measurements in term pregnancy and postpartum: an observational study.” PLoS One 9(8): e104782.

Stuge, B., I. Holm and N. Vollestad (2006). “To treat or not to treat postpartum pelvic girdle pain with stabilizing exercises?” Man Ther 11(4): 337-343.

Stuge, B., E. Laerum, G. Kirkesola and N. Vollestad (2004). “The efficacy of a treatment program focusing on specific stabilizing exercises for pelvic girdle pain after pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.” Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 29(4): 351-359.

Stuge, B., K. Saetre and I. H. Braekken (2012). “The association between pelvic floor muscle function and pelvic girdle pain–a matched case control 3D ultrasound study.” Man Ther 17(2): 150-156.

Stuge, B., K. Saetre and B. Ingeborg Hoff (2013). “The automatic pelvic floor muscle response to the active straight leg raise in cases with pelvic girdle pain and matched controls.” Man Ther18(4): 327-332.

Stuge, B., M. B. Veierod, E. Laerum and N. Vollestad (2004). “The efficacy of a treatment program focusing on specific stabilizing exercises for pelvic girdle pain after pregnancy: a two-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial.” Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 29(10): E197-203.

Talasz, H., C. Kremser, M. Kofler, E. Kalchschmid, M. Lechleitner and A. Rudisch (2011). “Phase-locked parallel movement of diaphragm and pelvic floor during breathing and coughing-a dynamic MRI investigation in healthy females.” Int Urogynecol J 22(1): 61-68.

Talasz, H., C. Kremser, M. Kofler, E. Kalchschmid, M. Lechleitner and A. Rudisch (2012). “Proof of concept: differential effects of Valsalva and straining maneuvers on the pelvic floor.” Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 164(2): 227-233.

Thompson, J. A., P. B. O’Sullivan, N. K. Briffa and P. Neumann (2006). “Differences in muscle activation patterns during pelvic floor muscle contraction and Valsalva maneuver.” Neurourol Urodyn 25(2): 148-155.

Thompson, W. R. (2015). “WORLDWIDE SURVEY OF FITNESS TRENDS FOR 2016: 10th Anniversary Edition.” ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal 19(6): 9-18.

Torelli, L., Z. I. de Jarmy Di Bella, C. A. Rodrigues, L. Stupp, M. J. Girao and M. G. Sartori (2016). “Effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction to a Pilates exercise program: an assessor-masked randomized controlled trial.” Int Urogynecol J.

Tzur, T., D. Yohai and A. Y. Weintraub (2016). “The role of local estrogen therapy in the management of pelvic floor disorders.” Climacteric 19(2): 162-171.

van de Water, A. T. and D. R. Benjamin (2016). “Measurement methods to assess diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM): A systematic review of their measurement properties and meta-analytic reliability generalisation.” Man Ther 21: 41-53.

van Delft, K. W., R. Thakar, A. H. Sultan, J. IntHout and K. B. Kluivers (2015). “The natural history of levator avulsion one year following childbirth: a prospective study.” BJOG 122(9): 1266-1273.

Varella, L. R., V. B. Torres, P. H. Angelo, M. C. Eugenia de Oliveira, A. C. Matias de Barros, S. Viana Ede and M. T. Micussi (2016). “Influence of parity, type of delivery, and physical activity level on pelvic floor muscles in postmenopausal women.” J Phys Ther Sci 28(3): 824-830.

Vink, J. Y., S. Qin, C. O. Brock, N. M. Zork, H. M. Feltovich, X. Chen, P. Urie, K. M. Myers, T. J. Hall, R. Wapner, J. K. Kitajewski, C. J. Shawber and G. Gallos (2016). “A new paradigm for the role of smooth muscle cells in the human cervix.” Am J Obstet Gynecol.

Vitton, V., K. Baumstarck-Barrau, S. Brardjanian, I. Caballe, M. Bouvier and J. C. Grimaud (2011). “Impact of high-level sport practice on anal incontinence in a healthy young female population.” J Womens Health (Larchmt) 20(5): 757-763.

Walker, E. A., W. J. Katon, J. Jemelka, H. Alfrey, M. Bowers and M. A. Stenehever (1991). “The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain and irritable bowel syndrome in two university clinics.” Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 12(sup1): 65-75.

Walker, G. J. and P. Gunasekera (2011). “Pelvic organ prolapse and incontinence in developing countries: review of prevalence and risk factors.” Int Urogynecol J 22(2): 127-135.

Walter, E. A. and W. F. Katon (1991). “The prevalence of chronic pain and irritable bowel syndrome in two university clinics.” Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 12: 66-69.

Warren, M. P. and N. E. Perlroth (2001). “The effects of intense exercise on the female reproductive system.” J Endocrinol 170(1): 3-11.

Weir, L. F., I. E. Nygaard, J. Wilken, D. Brandt and K. F. Janz (2006). “Postoperative activity restrictions: any evidence?” Obstet Gynecol 107(2 Pt 1): 305-309.

Wijnhoven, H. A., H. C. de Vet, H. A. Smit and H. S. Picavet (2006). “Hormonal and reproductive factors are associated with chronic low back pain and chronic upper extremity pain in women–the MORGEN study.” Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 31(13): 1496-1502.

Wilson, D., J. Dornan, I. Milsom and R. Freeman (2014). “UR-CHOICE: can we provide mothers-to-be with information about the risk of future pelvic floor dysfunction?” Int Urogynecol J 25(11): 1449-1452.

Wu, W. H., O. G. Meijer, K. Uegaki, J. M. Mens, J. H. van Dieen, P. I. Wuisman and H. C. Ostgaard (2004). “Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP), I: Terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence.” Eur Spine J 13(7): 575-589.

Zazulak, B. T., M. Paterno, G. D. Myer, W. A. Romani and T. E. Hewett (2006). “The effects of the menstrual cycle on anterior knee laxity: a systematic review.” Sports Med 36(10): 847-862.

About My PT Education

We are a group of passionate healthcare professionals hoping to influence the health and fitness world and educate the public on a diverse range of topics.

Click here for more information

The Physio Detective Website

Antony Lo owns My PT Education. He is also known as The Physio Detective. He has over 200 posts and lots of free information there.

Click here to go to The Physio Detective Website

Copyright 2016 mypteducation



FACEBOOK Create an Account
Create an Account Back to login/register